Resume/Curriculum vitae

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Prof. Michael Wainaina CV

1.1 Personal Information
Permanent Address : P.O Box 2002-00200 Nairobi
E-mail :
Nationality : Kenyan
D.O.B : 25th September 1972
1.2 Summary of Qualifications, Experience and Competencies
Twenty three years (23) University career: twelve (12) as a student, eleven (11) as faculty, with five (5) of those as a senior member of management staff: Chairman of Literature Department; Associate Dean of Graduate School; Member of the Graduate School Board; Member of the Deans‟ Committee. Five years (5) experience in the University Senate. Twelve years multi-disciplinary research experience in literature, folklore, education, human rights, Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS intervention programs and gender. Over twenty two (22) publications in books, peer reviewed papers, chapters in books and encyclopedias. Demonstrable experience in projects‟ concepts development having successfully developed over eleven (11) research and intervention project concepts and proposals which have been funded. Functional project leadership experience in project design, budgeting, planning, implementation, reporting and monitoring and evaluation across institutional cultures and with multi-faceted objectives Practical experience in participating in and leading teams in achieving specified goals within strict timelines and specific TORs having successfully worked with and/or led in over thirty two (32) Boards and Committees. International exposure through participation in over twenty seven (27) local and international symposia, seminars, conferences and workshops in Kenya, Ethiopia,Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, South Africa, Portugal, Germany and the United States of America. Vast experience in networking and collaborative programming with academic institutions having undertaken projects with: Free University of Berlin, Germany; University of Cape Town; South African Institute of Distance Education, South Africa SAIDE; Chambain College, U.S.A; Makerere University, Uganda; University of Jos, Nigeria; University of Education Wineba, Ghana; University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Vast experience in networking and collaborative programming with non-academic institutions having undertaken projects with The World Bank Institute, OSSREA1, UNESCO2, UNICEF-ESAR-ASHEWA3, FHI4, USAID-PEPFAR5, ICRW6, IAU7, NMG8, DAAD9 Vast experience in publications design and production having been the Creative Director and Editor-in-Chief of numerous publications: Thirteen (13) Issues of the Tribune, Kenyatta University Graduation Journal; Four (4) Issues of Chemchemi, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Two (2) Issues of the Kenyatta University Prospectus; Two (2) Issues of the Kenyatta University Annual Report; One (1) Issue of the Kenyatta University Catalogue; The highly acclaimed 244 page Souvenir Edition of the Kenyatta University Silver Jubilee Publication. Bonafide educational entrepreneur and innovator having founded Midas Academics Group Limited. It is the holding Company of Midas International Boys High School - An 8-4-4 Secondary School for boys and Midas Junior Academy. My vision is to create a flagship institutions setting trends and dictating the direction and pace of innovation in modern educational practice and outcomes in the region.
1 Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa 2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 3 United Nations Children’s Fund- –Association for Strengthening Higher Education for Women in Africa 4 Family Health International 5 United States Agency for International Development –President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief 6 International Center for Research on Women 7 International Association of Universities 8 Nation Media Group 9 German Academic Exchange Service.
Five (5) years experience of designing online courses and teaching online using Moodle (Modular Object - Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) Recipient of five (5) Meritorious Awards for research, exemplary performance and service. Was the first candidate of the 8-4-4 System to attain a PhD in a Kenyan Public University.
1.3 Personal/Career/Professional Aspirations
To positively influence the training, development and creation of opportunities for young people in Kenya for the purpose of youthification and modernization of the country through: The successful growth and expansion of the Midas brand, with the mission of providing modern learning systems and environments to meet the educational demands of the information age for the future. The establishment of various fora and platforms beyond the Midas brand, to support intellectual, cultural, physical, artistic and economic development of young people. Inspiring the next generation of young thinkers, innovators and patriots to be de-schooled from the vices of ethnicity, impunity and mediocrity, in order to play a significant role in the modernization of the Kenyan Nation and the restoration and institutionalization of the values of inclusion, meritocracy, excellence and rule of law. Leveraging my intellectual and other resources for the service of the youth and the creation of modern consciousness in the next generation.
2.1 Academic Qualifications
2002: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Kenyatta University
1999: Master of Arts – (M.A), Kenyatta University
1995: Bachelor of Education (Second Class Honors, Upper Division) English and Literature, Kenyatta University.
2.2 Other Professional Qualifications
2009: Completed and a Course in Monitoring and Evaluation by the Measuring, Learning and Evaluation Project
2009: Completed a Certificate Course in Management of Departments/Schools/Directorates conducted by the Center for Capacity Development in Higher Education, Kenyatta University
2009: Completed a Certificate Course in Research Ethics Course conducted by Family Health International
2009: Completed a Certificate Course on “Leaders in a Team” Course conducted by Leaders in Action
2001: Completed the French Pitman Certificate level 1
November 2012 – Associate Professor, Literature Department, Kenyatta University.
17th September 2007 – November 2012 Senior Lecturer, Literature Department, Kenyatta University.
Nov 2002 – 2007 Lecturer, Literature Department, Kenyatta University.
Nov. 1999 – October 2002. Tutorial Fellow: Literature Department, Kenyatta University.
4.1 Responsibilities at Kenyatta University
March 2009 – May 2013 Associate Dean, Graduate School
September 2007 – March 2009 Chairman, Literature Department, Kenyatta University
2005 – 2008 Examinations Officer, Literature Department, Kenyatta University
4.2 University Committees and Boards Chaired
August 2011 Appointed Chairman, Senate Ad-hoc Committee on Common/Shared Units
Terms of Reference
1. Rationalize the offering of the Common/Shared Units in the University
August 2011 Appointed Chairman, Standing Committee on University Annual Report – Revised
Terms of Reference
1. Prepare the University Annual Report at the end of every academic year
October 2010 Appointed Chairman to the Silver Jubilee Celebrations Publication Sub-committee.
Terms of Reference:
1. To gather all relevant historical and current information for the Silver Jubilee Publication.
2. To identify and work with an expert/consultant from the onset to assist in the preparation and publication of a high quality Jubilee publication.
3. To compile, typeset, layout and design the manuscript of the draft publication.
4. To liaise with the Silver Jubilee Documentary Sub-Committee to facilitate sharing of information relevant for the preparation of the publication.
5. To advise Management on printing of the publication.
6. To ensure timely printing and delivery of the printed publication.
7. To provide regular updates to my office and to the Silver Jubilee Celebrations Committee.
October 2009 Appointed Chairman of the University Standing Committee for the Kenyatta University Annual Report:
Terms of Reference: Produce the Kenyatta University Annual Report at the end of every financial year.
March 2009 Appointed Chairman to the University (2010-2013) Calendar Committee
Terms of Reference:
1. Review and update the current Kenyatta University Calendar to be ready before the beginning of the next academic year (September 2009)
2. Source information required to prepare the calendar from relevant stakeholders.
3. Revise, edit and compile the document for printing.
4. Advise Management of any issues related to publication of the document.
April to July 2008 Appointed Chairman of the Publications committee for the 2008 Graduation Publications. The committee was charged with the responsibility of the production of the graduation Journal from the office of the Vice-Chancellor called the Kenyatta University Tribune. Produced the Journal for the 24th graduation ceremony.
September 2007: Appointed Chairman, Department of Literature, Kenyatta University.
Terms of Reference
1. Serve as the Chairman of Departmental Board meetings.
2. Represent the Department on the appropriate University Committees and other bodies as required.
3. Ensure maintenance of proper and acceptable standards of teaching and instruction in the department.
4. Chief Examinations Officer of the department.
5. Make recommendations with respect to probation, advancement and promotion of Academic staff within the department
6. Serve as Executive Officer of the Department in the implementation of Departmental policy, as determined by the departmental board and other University authorities, and be responsible for the day to day administration of the Department
April & August 2007 Appointed Chairman of the Publications committee for the 2007 Graduation Publications. The committee was charged with the responsibility of the production of the graduation Journal from the office of the Vice-Chancellor called the Kenyatta University Tribune. Produced the Journal for the 22nd and 23rd graduation ceremony.
June 2006: Appointed Chairman of the Publications committee for the 2007 Graduation Publications. The committee was charged with the responsibility of the production of the graduation Journal from the office of the Vice-Chancellor called the Kenyatta University Tribune. Produced the Journal for the 21st graduation ceremony.
July 2006: Appointed Chief Editor of ChemChemi the International Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. Published Issue 3 in December of 2006, Vol. 4 No 1 in June 2007 and Vol. 4 No 2 in December 2007.
August 2006: Appointed Chairman of the Vice-Chancellor’s Sub-committee for the Kenyatta University Prospectus. Produced the first ever prospectus for Kenyatta University.
September 2006: Appointed the Chairman, Literature Department Curriculum Review Board: Charged with the responsibility of reviewing curriculum for the department of literature.
September 2006: Appointed Literature Department’s representative to the School of Humanities and Social Sciences Curriculum Board. The Board is charged with the responsibility of vetting all new and reviewed Curriculum in the School and make recommendations to the School Curriculum Board.
4.3. Membership in Committees and Boards
August 2011 Appointed Member, University Committee on Development of Strategic Plan for Directorate of Grant Writing and Management
Terms of Reference
1. Reviewing functions of Directorate towards achieving Kenyatta University Strategic and Vision Plan (2005 – 2015)
2. Developing a Strategic Plan for the Directorate that is aligned to the University Strategic and Vision Plan
3. Identifying key stakeholders and establish mechanisms for engaging them to participate in the Strategic Plan development effort.
July 2011 Appointed Member of the University Grant Application Proposal Writing Committee
Terms of Reference
1. To write a proposal on “Developing an institution Repository in Kenyatta University”
October 2010 Appointed a Member to the Vice-Chancellors‟ PhD Facilitation Committee
Terms of Reference:
1. Determine each applicant‟s need
2. Come up with guidelines on how the staff should seek assistance, who qualifies and what conditions should be fulfilled.
3. Formulate a Monitoring & Evaluation Mechanisms.
4. Ensure that each person reports progress. All the correspondence should be well documented.
May 2010 Appointed Member to the Honors Day Committee
Terms of Reference: Develop criteria for the selection of recipients of Honors Day Awards and select awardees using the criteria them.
January 2010 Appointed Member to the University committee for the Jubilee Celebrations
Terms of Reference: Plan for and organize the Silver Jubilee Celebrations
January 2010 Appointed Member to the Joint Kenyatta University & National Council for Science and Technology Research Conference Committee.
Terms of Reference:
1. Organize the 2010 Kenyatta University Annual Research Conference
2. Advertise the Conference widely
3. Solicit Funds for the Conference
4. Prepare the Conference guests and Keynote Speakers
5. Prepare Conference Venue
6. Liaise with the National Council for Science & Technology NCST to prepare the Conference Program and Presentations
November 2009 Appointed Member to the University Committee on Restructuring Schools into Colleges
Terms of Reference
1. Draft a new Structure grouping Schools and Creating Colleges
2. Draft an amendment to the University‟s Act for Senate and Council approval.
September 2009 Appointed Member to the University Committee for Rebranding School Based Programmes:
Terms of Reference:
1. To suggest other programmes in addition to education programmes to be done during School holidays.
2. To work on a Proposal to offer some School based Units on-line
3. To suggest improvements on the issue of fee Waiver.
4. To work out modalities of implementing a Unit based system.
5. To work out modalities of decentralizing admission.
6. To work out efficient communication mechanisms between the University and the Students
September 2009 Appointed Member to the Kenyatta University Research Review and Advisory Board (URRAB).
Terms of Reference:
1 Administer the University Research Fund.
2 Review all research proposals developed in Kenyatta University before they are sent out to various donors. Experts in specific area can be co-opted for this purpose.
3 Ensure that capacity building in Research is undertaken regularly.
4 Monitor recipients of Kenyatta University and external research funds to ensure compliance with donor requirements.
5 Investigate and establish misconduct in research and recommend penalties to management.
6 Ensure the quality research proposals are regularly produced to seek for donor funding.
7 Ensure the implementation of the University Research policy.
8 Put appropriate mechanisms in place to ensure that University rating based on research indicators is improved.
9 Raise funds for research to be competed for by staff.
March 2009 Appointed Member to the Senate Special Committee on Streamlining of Processes at Graduate School.
January-July 2008: Appointed Member to the Organising Committee of the 2008 University Senior Management Team Building Workshop; Also Appointed Chief Rapporteur for Workshop
December 2007: Appointed Member to The Vice Chancellor‟s University Documentary Committee; A committee charged with the production of a documentary to market Kenyatta University.
November 2007: Appointed Member to the Kenyatta University Rapid Response Initiative (RRI) Organizing Committee
October 2003 to October 2005: Department of Literature Examinations Officer. Coordinating all issues related to the administration and processing of examinations in the department of literature.
May 2004. Appointed Associate Editor, Chemchemi, the International Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Kenyatta University.
2004 Member, Publishing Sub-Committee of the 2004 University Graduation Committee.
2001 to 2007; Member of the Departmental Post Graduate Students Committee, Department of Literature.
2000 to 2007: Coordinator and trustee, Literature Department Welfare Committee.
May 2003- September 2003. Fellow of the International Center for Research on Women (I.C.R.W.), Washington D.C. During the fellowship I did research on methodologies of research in gender and education. My focus was on operations research designs as applied to gender and vulnerable female populations. I also designed an Operations Research project for reducing HIV/AIDS vulnerability of poor women in the non-formal sector in Nairobi.
6.1 Ph.D Supervision
1. Name: Judith Langat-Mutahi
Title: Inventing Woman: Re-Constructing female Post-apartheid Identity in the Writings of Farida Karodia.
6.2 Masters Supervisions
1. Name: Daniel Were
Tile: The Appropriation of Alienation Effect by Selected Theatre for Development Troupes in Kenya.
2. Name: Lilian Wambui Muteithia
Title: A Literary Analysis of Dominic Githingithia’s Conversational Narratives
3. Name: Evelyne Ojiambo
Title: The use of Myth on Grace Ogot’s Prose Fiction
4. Name: Ann Kinya
Title: An Analysis of the Dramatized Narrative of the Kenya Schools’ and Colleges’ Drama Festival.
5. Name: Jackson Gikunda Njogu
Title: Exile and Displacement: Reflections and Perceptions: A Study of Selected Plays By John Ruganda
6. Name: Justus Siboe Makokha,
Registration No: C50/7303/2002 Title: The Configuration of the Asian African self in Selected Prose of M.G. Vassanji: A post Colonial Reading
7. Name: Wanja E.M Kangangi
Title: A Feminist Analysis of Selected Dramatized Songs of John De Mathew,
8. Name: Zacharia Nyanjom Ligaye
Title: Aesthetic Construction of Mau Mau in Selected Kenyan Fiction.
9. Name: Oduor Tony Laban:
Title: The Use of Childhood Metaphor in Selected Post-Colonial Texts
10. Name: Patrick Mwenda Gatobu:
Title: The Contribution of Effective Policy Design to Successful Implementation and Overall Organizational Performance: The Case of Kenyatta University.
7.1 Participation in Local Conferences Seminars and Workshops
30th October 2009 International Deans Course Africa 2009/2010 Regional Workshops Part II; held in Kenyatta University.
19th – 21st May 2009 “Partnerships for Higher Education in Africa (PHEA) Educational Technology Initiative Workshop” held in Kenyatta University.
24th -26th February 2009 “Management of University Departments/Schools and Directorates” held in Kenyatta University Conference Center.
31st October – 1st November 2005 “Research Ethics Training Curriculum”. Went through the International Research Ethics Curriculum” and received certification
10th -14th January 2005 “Grant Proposal Writing Workshop” held at Kenyatta University.
7.2 Presentation of Papers at Local Seminars and Conferences
23rd February 2007. Workshop on “Youth Participation in Development: Challenges and Opportunities”
Paper Presented: “The Role of Education in Youth Development”
23rd February 2007. Symposium on “Culture and Identity”, held in Lenana Conference Center, Nairobi under the auspices of Twaweza Communications. Paper presented “Youth and Culture”.
20th –24th November 2002. Conference on “Democracy, Culture and Governance”, Hosted by OSSREA Kenyan Chapter in Eldoret.
Paper Presented: “Global Trends in Gendering Continuing and lifelong learning: Implications for democratizing societies‟
10th-14th September 2001 Research Seminar for the 13th Gender Issues Research Writing Competition of the Organization for social Science Research in South Central and Eastern Africa (O.S.S.R.E.A), held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
24th -25th March 2000 Seminar on “The Politics of Language, Gender and Theory in Modern African writing: Implications for Criticism” at Egerton University, Njoro. Paper Presented: “Language in Modern African Literature: The Third Perspective”
17th- 20th April, 2000 National conference on Higher Education for Human Development in Kenya. Held in Kenyatta University.
7.3 Participation in International Seminars/ Conferences
19th – 23rd September 2010: Workshop on “North-South Literary and Cultural Interactions”, held at the Free University of Berlin, Germany.
26th – 28th May 2010 “International e-Learning Africa Conference”, held in Lusaka, Zambia.
22nd – 24th February, 2010 “PHEA Educational Technology Initiative First Inter-Institutional Workshop”, held in Wanderers Club, Johannesburg, South Africa.
January 2008 – October 2010 “International Conference on Family Strength”, held at North Coast Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya.
19th -22nd September 2005 “International workshop on the Small grants Programme for Poverty Alleviation/Building National Capacities for Research and Policy Analyses, held in Zanzibar: Sponsored by UNESCO.
26th –29th May 2004
“International I.C.R.W. Fellows conference” held in Safari Park, Nairobi, Kenya.
7.4 Presentation of Papers at International Seminars and Conferences
21st – 28th August 2011
Seminar on “Teaching Decolonization” held at the University of Cape Town.
Paper Presented: “Reflection on the “Literature of Atrocity” Within the Postcolonial Paradigm in African Literary Studies”
16th – 18th May 2011
International Seminar on “OER Africa - Open Educational Resources Convening” held in Safari Park Hotel. Paper Presented: “Use of Open Educational Resources – Lessons from the PHEA-ETI Kenyatta University experience”.
22nd – 23rd July 2010
International Conference on “Multilingualism and education: global practices, challenges and the way forward”. Co-hosted by Kenyatta university and the University of Pennsylvania:
Paper Presented: “A Useless Identity? Perceptions and Reflections on the Vernacular Acquisition and Use in Multilingual Kenya”.
18th -23rd October 2009
8th International Conference on Urban Health, ICUH 2009, held at K.I.C.C. Nairobi, Kenya Paper Presented: Mitigating HIV/AIDS vulnerability among female domestic workers in Nairobi: Lessons from research and intervention .
1st –2nd October 2009
“Twenty years of democratization in East Africa, 1990–2010: The gradual upheavals of political institutions and political cultures”. International Seminar held in Makerere University, Uganda., Paper Presented: Hip-hop as a Political Idiom: Methods and Dilemmas in Political Engagement by the Youth in the 90‟s and Beyond.
26th February-3rd March 2007
“International Conference on Inter-sectoral Programme on Poverty eradication”, UNESCO, held in Lisbon Portugal.
Paper Presented: Results of research on Case Studies of Poverty as a Violation of Human Rights among Domestic Workers in Nairobi.
17th – 23rd October 2005.
“The 117th International Conference of the American Folklore Society”, held in Atlanta Georgia.
Paper Presented: The Folk Protest against Western meta-narratives of Africa‟s Otherness.
13th-17th October 2004
“International Conference of the American Folklore Society (A.F.S)”, held in Salt Lake City Utah, U.S.A. Theme: Folklore and Cultural Landscapes.
Paper Presented: Contested space and Narratives of Contamination in Mukurwe wa Gathanga Cultural Heritage Site.
12th –16th November 2001
“International Conference on Transformation of higher Education Management and Leadership for Efficacy in Africa”.
Paper Presented. Perceptions on Student Involvement for a client Centered Management of Higher Education.
17th –22nd July, 2000
“International Conference of the International Society for Folk Narrative Research (I.S.N.F.R.)” held in Kenyatta University.
Paper Presented: The American President Meets the Ogre in Hollywood: Linking the Mytho-Cognitive Constructs of the Gikuyu Ogre Tale to The American Film.
7.5 Conferences, Seminars and Workshops Organized
January 2008 – October 2010 International Conference on Family Strength, held at North Coast Beach Hotel, Mombasa, Kenya. 2010
Appointed to Organizing Committee of the Kenyatta University & Natioanl Council for Science and Technology Annual Research Conference.
April to June 2008
Organized the first ever Literature Students Finalists Career Symposium held in Kenyatta University between the 4th and 5th June 2008.
25th – 26th March, 2008
Training of Trainers TOT Workshop: Risk of HIV/AIDS and Feasibility of Intervention among domestic workers in Nairobi, Held at Kenyatta University.
8.1 Papers in Refereed Journals Peer Reviewed Volumes
8.1.1 Individual Publications
1. Wainaina, Michael, (2011). “Influence of Gender Roles On Students Pursuing Module II Programs In Kenyan Public Universities”. In the International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol. 1 No. 13 [Special Issue – September 2011]. Online Version: ISSN 2220-8488 (Print) ISSN 2221-0989 (Online). (See Abstract – Appendix I.)
2. Wainaina, Michael, (2011). “Gendered Challenges and Opportunities in Module II Programs in Kenyan Public Universities: A Critical Appraisal”. Paper in the International Journal of humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 1 No 20. ISSN 2220-8488 (Print) ISSN 2221-0989 (Online). (See abstract – Appendix II.)
3. Wainaina, Michael (2011). “New Wine in Old Wineskins: Stylistic Provisions of Orature‟s Call and Response for Contemporary Discourses in Gikuyu Popular Music”. In Makokha, J. K. S., West-Pavlov, R. & Ogone, O. J., eds. (2011). Style in Contemporary African Literatures:
Critical Perspectives. (IFAVL Series). Amsterdam. Rodopi, 2011. 480pp. (See abstract – Appendix III)
4. Wainaina Michael, (2010). “Empire Speaks Back: Authenticity Folk Voices and Re-presentation of Across in Gĩkũyũ Radio Narratives”. In Negotiating Afropolitanism: Essays on Borders and Spaces in contemporary African Literature and Folklore. Eds; Wawrzinek, J & Makokha, J.K.S. Rodopi B.V: Amsterdam. ISBN 978-90-420-2323-1. (See abstract – Appendix IV)
5. Wainaina, Michael, (2009). “Artistic Discourse and Gender Politics in the Gĩkũyũ Popular Song”. Music and Politics. Eds; Kimani Njogu and Hervé Moupeu. Mkuki na Nyota Publishers/IFRA: Dar-es-Salaam & Nairobi; PP 49-70. ISBN 9987-449-42. (See Abstract – Appendix V)
6. Wainaina Michael, (2007). “Re-Appropriation of Traditional Song Genre in Written Poetry of English Expression in East Africa”. In ChemChemi: International Journal of the School of Humanities, Kenyatta University. Vol 4 No 1, PP 64-82 .ISBN 1563-1028. (See abstract – Appendix VI)
7. Wainaina, Michael, 2001. “The American President Meets the Ogre in Hollywood: Linking the Mytho-Cognitive Constructs of the Gikuyu Ogre Tale to the American Film.” Fabula. Volume 43, Issue 1-2, Pages 119–128, ISSN (Online) 1316-0464, ISSN (Print) 0014-6242. (See abstract – Appendix VII).
8.1.2 Joint Publications
8. Kimani, E; Mugenda, O; Maina, L;Wainaina,M. (2011) “Challenges facing female learners at various levels of education in Kenya”. In Isiphethu Solwazi: Unizulu International Journal of Education. Volume 2, Number 1, 2010. ISSN: 2078-7545. URL: (See abstract – Appendix XIII)
8.1.3 Published with Student
9. Wainaina, Michael & Hongo, Evelyn, (2010). “Grace Ogot: Re-Imaging Gender in Kenyan Literature”. In African Women Novelists: Re-Imaging Gender. Eds; Pandurang, M. & Bartels, A. Pencraft International: New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-909416-3-1. (See abstract – Appendix XI)
8.2 Papers in Conference Proceedings
1. Wainaina, Michael, (2008). “Case Studies of Poverty as Violation of Human Rights among Female Domestic Workers in Kenya.” In UNESCO Small Grants Programme on Poverty Eradication: Building National capacities for Research and Policy Analysis; UNESCO 2008, Paris. ISBN 9-789231-040764. (See abstract – Appendix X)
2. Wainaina Michael , (2005). “The Representation of African-European Relations in Mediated Contemporary Verbal Art”. Across Borders: Benefiting from Cultural Differences. Conference Proceedings, DAAD: Nairobi 2005. (See abstract – Appendix XI)
8.3 Books
8.3.1 Joint Publications
1. Mugenda, O; Kimani, E; Maina, L; & Wainaina, M. (2010). Female Representation in Various Levels of Education in Kenya: Identifying Opportunities for Policy, Action and Linkages. Longhorn: Nairobi. ISBN: 9966 36 998-8 – Joint Publication. (See abstract – Appendix XII)
8.3.2 Individual Publications
2. Wainaina, Michael, (2009). The Worlds of Gikuyu Mythology: A Mytho-Structural Analysis of a Culture’s Modes of Thought and Practice. VDM Verlag Müller & Co: Berlin; Germany. ISBN 978-3-639- 14135-1. (See abstract – Appendix XIII)
3. Wainaina, Michael, (2009). Gender in Nascent Module II Programs in Kenyan Public Universities: A Descriptive Survey. OSSREA. Addis Ababa. ISBN 978-99944-55-31-7. (See abstract – Appendix XIV)
8.4 Chapters & Articles in Books
1. Wainaina, Michael, (2010). “Mytho-Linguistic Construction of Gĩkũyũ Cultural Identity and Political Implications for Nationalism in Multi-Cultural Kenya”. In Language and Politics in Africa: Contemporary issues and Critical Perspectives; Eds; Orwenjo, D.O; & Ogone, J. O. Cambride Scholars Publishing: London. ISBN 1-4438-2383-X. See abstract – Appendix XV)
2. Wainaina, Michael, (2010). “African Aesthetic Thought”. Encyclopedia of African Thought. Eds., Abiola Irele and Biodun Jefiyo. Taylor and Francis New York: pp17-20. ISBN13: 978-0-19-533473-9ISBN10.
3. Wainaina, Michael, (2008). „Lemme do m‟thing‟: Objective Possibilities in Re-visioning Youth Identity through Pop-Music”. In Art Culture and Society, Vol 2. Twaweza Communications: Nairobi. PP 57-74. ISBN 9966 7244 1 9. (See abstract – Appendix XVI)
4. Wainaina, Michael, (2004). “Naming Customs, East Africa”: African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Philip Peek and Kwesi Yankah. Eds; New York: Routledge, pp 288-289.
5. Wainaina, Michael, (2004). “Tongue Twisters in East Africa”: African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Philip Peek and Kwesi Yankah, (Eds). New York: Routledge, pp469-470.
6. Wainaina, Michael, (2004), “Policing the Colonial State”: An Encyclopedia of African History. Shillington, K., (ed) Routledge, New York. ISBN 1-57958-454-3
8.4.1 Joint Publications
7. Maina, L & Wainaina, M, (2009). Das Mediensystem Kenias”. In Internationales handbuch Medien. Ed. Hans-Bedrow Institute. Nomos Germany: ISBN 0946-3348
8.5 Modules
1. Wainaina, Michael (2003). ALT 102 An Introduction to East African Oral Literature. Institute of Open learning, Kenyatta University.
2. Wainaina, Michael, (2004), ALT 208 Literary Language and Presentation. Institute of Open Learning, Kenyatta University.
8.6 Editor of Journals
1. Chemchemi, International Journal of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences:
Volume: 5 No. 1, 2008 Volume: 4 No. 2, 2007 Volume: 3 No. 1, 2006 (Associate Editor)
8.7 Editor of other University Publications
1. Kenyatta University Silver Jubilee Publication
2. Tribune: A journal from the Office of the Vice-Chancellor for:
21st Graduation Ceremony
22nd Graduation Ceremony
23rd Graduation Ceremony
24th Graduation Ceremony
25th Graduation Ceremony
26th Graduation Ceremony
27th Graduation Ceremony
28th Graduation Ceremony
29th Graduation Ceremony
3. 2006-2008 Kenyatta University Undergraduate and Postgraduate Prospectus.
4. 2008, Literature Department Students’ Orientation Handbook
5. 2009-2011 Kenyatta University Catalogue
6. 2009- 2011 Kenyatta University Prospectus
7. 2009-2011 Kenyatta University Calendar
8.8. Documentaries Produced
2009/2010 Documentary on “House helps Health and Lifeskills Project” Produced in Collaboration with Family Health International and Silver screen Productions
1. 2005 to Present – Collaborating with United States Agency for International Development, (USAID), Presidents‟ Emergency Plan for AI.DS Relief (PEPFAR) and Family Health International (FHI) in the project on resourcing and utilization of HIV/AIDS information among female Domestic Workers
2. 2008 - Present – Facilitated the ongoing tripartite collaboration between Department of Literature, Kenyatta University, Department of Linguistics and Postcolonial Studies in the Free University of Berlin and the Department of English in University of Cape Town. We developed a student and staff exchange and Curriculum development Programme called “North-South Literary and Cultural Studies” funded by DAAD
3. 2009 – Present – Collaborating with South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE) to develop an online Research Methodology Course for Postgraduate Students
1. September 2011
“Factors Influencing the Uptake of Technology for Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Seven Higher Education Institutions in Africa” A multi-institutional Study across Seven Universities in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Ghana. Role: Principal Investigator in Kenya
2. 2009:
“PHEA-ETI-Kenyatta University Post-Graduate Research Methods and Resources Project”. A project for mainstreaming e-learning into University Teaching and Learning funded by Partnerships for Higher Education – Educational Technology Initiative (PHEA-ETI) Role: Project Team Leader
3. 2009:
“A Survey of Gender Representation in Higher Education in Kenya: Identifying Opportunities for Policy and Action”. Funded by: UNICEF ESAR- ASHEWA: Research Team: Prof. Olive Mugenda, Vice- Chancellor – Kenyatta University - Principal Investigator, Dr. Elishiba N. Kimani, Kenyatta University – Research Coordinator, Dr. Michael Wainaina, Kenyatta University – Researcher, Dr. Lucy W. Maina, Kenyatta University – Researcher.
4. 2010- 2011
“Intervention Project on Risk of HIV/AIDS and Unintended pregnancies among Housegirls and Out of School youth in Nairobi: Research and Scale-up”. Role: Principle Investigator and Project Manager
5. 2005-2006:
Research Grant for the Study: “Risk of HIV/AIDS and Unintended Pregnancies among out-of-school working girls in Nairobi.”
The Study is an International collaboration with Family Health International: Sponsor: USAID Role: Principal Investigator
6. Project Pilot and Intervention: Risk of HIV/AIDS among Housegirls in Nairobi.
Role: Project Manager
7. 2004-2006 Post-doctoral Research Grant by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA) to conduct research on “Trends in Gender Mainstreaming in Nascent Module II Programmes in Kenyan Public Universities”
Role: Principal Investigator.
8. 2005: Research Grant for the Study: “Case Studies of Poverty as Violation of Human Rights among Female Domestic Workers in Kenya”. Sponsored by UNESCO.
Role: Principal Investigator
9. 2004: Research Grant for the study: “A survey of HIV/AIDS information access and utilization capacity by marginalized female populations in Nairobi Kenya”.
Sponsored by the International Center for Research on Women (I.C.R.W.). Role: Principal Investigator
10. 2001: Research Grant for the study “Analysis of the Training and Empowerment Programs for Female Domestic Laborers in Nairobi, Kenya: Implications for Alleviation of Female Poverty”. Sponsor: World Bank Institute.
Role: Principal Investigator.
11.1 External Examination
External Examiner, Kagumo Teachers College
2008 – To Date
External Examiner, University of Nairobi, Literature Department
11.2 Appointments to Boards
1. 2004 – Present Member of the Board of Governors, Mai-a-Ihii Secondary School, Kikuyu
2. 2006 – 2009 Member of the Board of Governors, Kikuyu Day Secondary School, Kikuyu
2012 – Awarded the Vice-Chancellor‟s Commendation for exemplary Service to Kenyatta University. 2009 Awarded the Vice-Chancellors Extra Mile Award in recognition of exemplary service to Kenyatta University 2006-2009 Awarded the Vice-Chancellors‟ Research Award for attracting high amount of Research Grants 2008 Awarded a Certificate of Merit in Recognition of outstanding contribution towards the University‟s attainment of 1st Position in performance Contracting (State Corporations) 2006-2007 cycle. 2007 Awarded the Vice-Chancellor‟s Extra Mile Award
1. Proprietor and Director of Academic Programmes at Midas International Boys High School; A Modern 8-4-4 Secondary School for boys founded on the Vision of being the flagship 21st Century institution setting trends and dictating the pace of innovation in modern educational practice and outcomes in the region. The Mission of Midas International Boys High School is to provide modern learning systems and environments to meet the demands of the information age and need of the modern learner for the future. For more information log on to
2. I have instituted several innovative concepts and practices at Midas International Boys High School as the Director of Academic Programmes. The most important is overhauling the architecture of the classroom to facilitate creation of learning communities, collaborative learning and put the learner at the center of the learning process. To further support these modern pedagogical approached I have designed a new classroom desk called the Pentagonal Collaborative Learning Unit®10.
Appendix I
Influence of Gender Roles on Students Pursuing Module II Programs in Kenyan Public Universities.
Michael Wainaina
Module II programs in Kenyan Public Universities have grown over the last ten years giving expanded access to many Kenyans hitherto unable to access higher education. Since the programs are being offered in an educational setting with already well documented gender disparities, this paper argues that research focus in higher education needs to be directed to the gender trends in Module II programs, to ensure that the gender is not relegated to the periphery of the discourse surrounding Module II programs. Neglecting the gender angle may lead to an undesirable situation where Module II programs will perpetuate the gender disparities that currently characterize the educational sector, or worse still, create new ones that will diminish or undermine any gains that could have been made towards gender parity in tertiary and other levels of education The paper thus reports groundbreaking research that seeks to call attention to the implications of gender in Module II programs,. The paper explores how the traditional gender roles influence students enrolled in the programs. Two public Universities were sampled through stratified random sampling and data collected from students undertaking courses under the Module II program. Descriptive statistics were used in analyzing data. The paper demonstrates that gender roles influence both men and women in different ways, making it necessary for Universities to consider gender barriers while advertising and mounting Module II programs. Appendix II
Gendered Challenges and Opportunities in Module II Programs in Kenyan Public Universities: A Critical Appraisal
Michael Wainaina
African countries have, since independence recognized education as a major catalyst of development. Five decades later, this focus has not changed although literacy rates remain low. In Kenya, many initiatives to increase access have been mounted and at the university level, public universities increased access by introducing self-sponsored programs, popularly known as Module II programs. The programs are being offered to mature students as a life-long learning model. This paper explores the intersection of issues of gender and these Module II programs in public Universities in Kenya.
Appendix III
New Wine in Old Wineskins: Stylistic Provisions of Orature’s Call and Response for contemporary Discourses in Gikuyu Popular Music
Michael Wainaina
Orature forms carry with them certain characteristics that endow them with dynamism. These include “ways of mediating reality based on keen observation of phenomena” (Mugo 1994). Changing historical and social realities gives rise to characteristic forms of verbal expression which seek to reflect and interpret the new socio-historical phenomena. It is this new phenomena created by the rupture within the African indigenous history and way of life through the colonial experience that gave rise to the popular song. The most distinguishing feature of contemporary popular song is its close relationship with the electronic media. It has also been acknowledged as the “most significant event in twentieth Century… [Verbal art]” (Manuel 1988). Although popular music as a socio-cultural phenomenon in Kenya embodies and expresses the social issues and identities which emerge as products of urbanization and modernization, it must be seen against the backdrop of orature, the African oral literary heritage for which it is a contemporary corollary. This paper seeks to explore how the rhetoric and stylistic provisions of orature‟s call and response form have been reappropriated and syncretised into contemporary popular song. In doing so, I have discussed the form as a stylistic provision for different categories of discourse in contemporary song namely: didactic discourse, contextualized discourse, extended discourse, problematic discourse, subversive discourse and dramatic discourse . The paper demonstrates that while operating in and committed to contemporary situations and imperatives, popular music is stylistically tethered to a recognizable body of artistic resources from traditional orature which serves as its inspiration and guide.
Appendix IV
Empire Speaks Back: Authenticity, Folk Voices and Re-Presentation of Across in Gikuyu Radio Narrative
Michael Wainaina
Cognizant of the dominant stereotypical image of Africa in Western writing; in appreciation of the fact that stereotyping of difference works both ways; being critical of the capacity of canonised African literature to capture authentic voices of the folk as they speak back to the West; recognising the power of radio in its reinforcement of oracy and representation of a folk-centered world view; I proceed to analyze radio narratives from Kameme Kayũ Ka Mũingĩ (The Voice of the People Radio) an independent community-oriented radio station in Nairobi Kenya that broadcasts in Gĩkũyũ to answer the question: “What are the contemporary representations of across, going across and engaging with those from across11 in relation to transgression of geographical and cultural borders by Gĩkũyũ folk?” The analysis shows that the folk create their own image of across and the crossing of borders in characterising the relationship between themselves and the West. They not only speak back to the stereotypes of the West about Africa, but they also create their own stereotypes in return. They characterise those from across as odd and gullible. They freely suspend the moral rules of engagement that they use with their own, evaluate their relationship with the West on largely economic terms and take no moral responsibility in engaging with those from across in extortionist and depraved terms .The dominant stereotypical image of Africa in Western thought and the equally stereotypical responses by the folk in engaging with Westerners indicates that there does not seem to be a mutually affirming discourse between the two cultures.
1 The word for “abroad” or “overseas” especially in relation to Europe and America in Gĩkũyũ language is Mũrĩmo meaning “across.”
Appendix V
Artistic Discourse and Gender Politics in the Gikuyu Popular Song
Michael Wainaina
This paper seeks to demonstrate discourse shifts of gender politics in Gikuyu popular song. The paper uses the narratological approach in the analyses and interpretations. According to kabira and Masheti,, (1995), narratological analysis recognizes that any written, visualized or broadcast text contains within it a gendered perspective and mirrors the reality of the subject and object. This refers to that which is written about, that which is spoken about and that which is visualized. Narration here refers to the process of presenting, representing or making something come alive. In the case of the popular song, narration will be taken to mean the presentation of observed, experienced, felt or imagined situations, presented by popular musicians in a subjective way. Narratological analysis acknowledges that often, there are multiple actors and voices in the same text presented via any given media. The aim of narratological analysis in this situation is to identify the different elements within the text and expose them to a systematic scrutiny to establish their gender responsiveness. In the analyses of the paper, questions from narratological analysis in examining gender in the artistic discourse of the Gikuyu popular song will arise. The questions include: Who acts? Who speaks? What is the nature of the speech? Whose speech carries more weight in initiating action? Who tells the story? Who has the power? How is the power exercised, maintained or perpetuated? Song texts will also be examined in terms of language use, that is: Who is named? Who is not named? How does naming or not naming contribute to gender? What male and female images does the language use project? What images, symbols and general associations are used within the text or refer to the females? The papers point of departure is the overwhelming influence of patriarchy in the early Gikuyu popular song productions that appear to have been male dominated. The paper demonstrates that this had its ramification on gender projections until women artistes came onto the musical scene. Because of this, the artistic discourse has moved towards a counter balance with the inclusion of not only female voices, but also exposure of the patriarchal impropriety which had been overlooked and/or understated in the earlier male-dominated discourses.
Appendix VI
Re-Appropriation of Traditional Song Genre in Written Poetry of English Expression in East Africa.
Michael Wainaina
This paper critically examines the confluence of the traditional song genre with the modern written poetry of English expression in East Africa. It specifically investigates the re-appropriation of aspects of traditional song in selected poems from four East African anthologies: Amateshe‟s An Anthology of East African Poetry; Cook and Rubadiri‟s Poems from East Africa; Kariara and Gitonga‟s An Introduction to East African Poetry; Luvai‟s Boundless Voices. These anthologies are widely used in Schools an Colleges in East Africa for the teaching of modern African poetry of English expression. In examining this relationship, the paper relies on the aestheticist approach to the examination of the relationship between tradition and modernity as propounded by Isidore Okpewho. The approach provides a comprehensive conceptual framework in analysing the relationship between orature and contemporary African written literature. The analyses reveal that the traditional song genre has variously influenced modern poetry, with poets utilising its content and form with varying degrees of creativity. The overall effect has been the preservation in print of those motifs of traditional performances unique to East African literature.
Appendix VII
The American President Meets the Ogre in Hollywood: Linking the Mytho-Cognitive Constructs of the Gikuyu Ogre Tale to the American Film.
Michael Wainaina
This paper attempts a comparison between the American film and the Agikuyu ogre tale with particular reference to existential imagination. I use the term „existential imagination‟ to mean a particular society‟s concept of life and being and its perpetuation through projection in contents of myths. The term „myth‟ and all it derivatives are employed in the Okpewhorean sense of the term namely “that quality of fancy which informs the symbolistic or configurative powers of the human mind at varying degrees of intensity; its principle virtue is that it tends to resist all constraint to time and experience t o the end that it satisfies the deepest urges of a people or of mankind” (Okewho 1983, 219). This definition enables us to unite the kind of imaginative effort that enters into the composition of both the Gikuyu ogre tale and the American film. Thus the art of narrating myths and writing film scripts shall be referred to as mythmaking; the narrators of the tales and the film-script writers shall be referred to as mythmakers; and the content of the Gikuyu ogre tales and the American films shall be referred to as myth. I have chosen the two categories for comparison on account of their apparent disconnection. One the one hand, there is the American film, which is a modern genre and supposedly conveys a modern understanding and interpretation of life. On the other hand, there are the Gikuyu ogre narratives which are traditional in that they are supposedly passed down through the ages from generation to generation and present a more or less traditional African outlook to life. These two narrative genres stand out in contrast – one modern, the other traditional, one influenced by modern science and technology, the other composed and largely disseminated in a pre-scientific oral society, one utilizing the sophistication of a literate and technological society and the other displaying the apparent simplicity of a folk rooted in tradition. One may then be tempted to ask: “What would possibly be common to such apparently divergent forms of mythmaking?” This is the question that I seek to answer in this paper which I hope may be a springboard for further comparisons between the two forms of narrative.
Appendix VIII
Challenges facing female learners at various levels of education in Kenya.
Kimani, E; Mugenda, O; Maina, L;Wainaina,M. This study investigated the challenges facing female learners at various levels of education, with a view to generating strategies and recommendations that would assist in promoting their full participation in the education sector in the country. In addition, the study investigated the challenges faced by female employees in the participating institutions. The participants were drawn from four institutions, purposively selected to represent middle level colleges, public as well as private universities. The study established that females faced challenges throughout the various education cycles as learners. The challenges seemed to increase as the female students went up the education ladder. Although identified challenges ranged from social-economic to policy and institutional based, sexual harassment was identified as a serious one cutting across all levels of education. This and other challenges call for urgent redress at institutional and government levels if gender equality and women empowerment is to be realized. The study concludes by discussing strategies that can be adapted to enhance participation of females at various levels of education in Kenya. Some of the strategies had implications for policies while others demanded social transformation in terms of change of people‟s culture and attitudes. Others challenged institutional policies and practices. Specific strategies included the need to promote access to education; provision of safe, friendly and secure learning and teaching environment; establishment and upgrading of single sex schools in the learning of science, mathematics and information technology (SMIT); teaching of life-skills and retooling of teachers for gender sensitive pedagogy.
Appendix IX
Grace Ogot: Re-Imaging Gender in Kenyan Literature
Michael Wainaina & Evelyn Hongo
Grace Ogot is one of the most prolific female writer to emerge in East & Central Africa. As a prose writer, Ogot has written six literary works. These include three short story collections namely, Land Without Thunder (1968), The Other Woman (1976), and The Island of Tears (1980); a novella, The Graduate (1980); and two novels, The Promised Land (1966) and The Strange Bride (1983). Her position as a writer of great stature is further demonstrated by the fact that she was writing in an era where writing in East Africa was largely a male affair. She therefore represents a lone(ly) female voice in an epoch dominated by male voices. She is thus a natural choice in exploring the way literary production has re-presented and re-imagined gender in the time and space that Ogot was writing. In the discussions of this paper we begin by presenting a state of the art literature review of critical perspectives through which Grace Ogot‟s work has been interrogated. We then proceed to discuss the way in which she has sought the re-imaging of gender in a unique epoch in the socio-cultural development in the region. We have interrogated her approach from the prism of certain literary conventions that have informed literary production and criticism from this region. These are the influence of the oral tradition on the modern writer, depiction of changing socio-cultural trends and the concept of committed literature which has come to characterize the muse of many East African writers of the epoch that Grace Ogot was writing. This approach reveals the contribution of Grace Ogot not just as a female writer but also as an African writer influenced by both socio-historical occurrences and the literary traditions of her time.
Appendix X
Case studies of poverty as violation of human rights among female domestic workers in Kenya.
Michael Wainaina.
The research sought to present case studies of female domestic workers in Nairobi, Kenya, illustrating dimensions of their impoverished situations as they relate to violations of human rights, and identifying the responsible dutybearers. A collective case study design of data collection among female domestic workers was used. Data was collected from multiple subject enquiries using an in-depth interview schedule. The interviews were transcribed into autobiographical narratives that present each interview as a case study. The responses to the interview were then analyzed using NUDIST software for qualitative data analysis. It was categorized in themes derived from codes developed from the interview schedule. The analysis is done by subjecting the data and the autobiographical narratives to the theoretical constructs of a human rights approach whereby the situation of respondents is examined in relation to various human rights standards and conventions. This study is informed by the human rights approach to poverty. The ultimate goal is that the human rights approach to the plight of poor female domestic workers should spur action among the duty holders to put up policies, institutions, structures and mechanisms that will ameliorate the situation. It is evident that there is a demand for domestic workers and the sector should be recognized as making a key contribution in socioeconomic development. In this way, those engaged in the sector will not be impoverished, but can be empowered to improve their lives and those of their dependants.The study demonstrates that civic education needs to be carried out to educate the public about the role of domestic service and the rights of domestic workers. Culturally this sector has been looked down upon and therefore there is no moral sense of wrongdoing felt in mistreating domestic workers. This perception needs to change and the public should know that domestic workers are beneficiaries of human rights just like everyone else. Professionalizing the service would help this. This would entail training the domestic workers on their role, their duties and responsibilities and equally importantly, their rights. It is expected that when everyone understands their rights and responsibilities, the lot of domestic workers will be better off.
Appendix XI
The (Re)Presentation of African-European Relations in Mediated Contemporary Verbal Art
Michael Wainaina
The recent liberalization of the electronic media has engendered the emergence of new folklore forms that seek to present unique folk-narrative programs. One such program is called “Mathekania na Mataaro ma Githingithia” aired on 101.1 Kayu ka Muingi Kameme FM, which has grown to become one of the,post popular programs on vernacular FM radio in Kenya today. Roughly translated, the title would mean “The anecdotes of Githingithia” . „Githingithia‟, is the name of the folk-hero-narrator, and the „anecdotes‟ are short didactic and intensely humorous „folk‟ experiences, to which he is either a participant, a witness or has information about. This paper seeks to explore how through these folk experiences, Gikuyu folk seeks to respond to the grand narratives of colonial domination and meta-narrative of Africa‟s otherness, as presented in the West‟s cultural rhetoric of presentation of Africa as „wild‟ and „untamed‟. How does the folk in the through Mataaro na Mathekania ma Githingithia (MMG) seek to (re)member and characterize dominant images growing out of the long and often troubled relation with Europe and the West several decades after direct political, social and cultural control is deemed to have ceased?
Appendix XII
Female Representation in Various Levels of Education in Kenya: Identifying Opportunities for Policy, Action and Linkages.
Mugenda, O; Kimani, E; Maina, L; & Wainaina, M.
The study‟s overall objective was to document and analyze the status of girls and women in the education sector in Kenya. Specific objectives were: to document the status of student enrolment by gender at various levels of education; establish the staffing by gender at various levels of education; document the profile of female learners in middle level colleges and universities; investigate the challenges facing female learners and staff at various levels of education; document the existing initiatives to promote the participation of females at various levels of education; examine the role of tertiary institutions of learning in promoting gender parity in basic education; and come up with recommendations for the promotion of female participation in the education sector in the country to inform policy and action. Four institutions were purposely selected for study to represent middle level colleges and public as well as private universities. A detailed questionnaire was administered to the selected female respondents while Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guides were used to generate data from selected female students, female and male members of teaching and non-teaching staff as well as institutional managers. Qualitative as well as quantitative data was collected and analyzed to provide information on profile, enrolment, staffing, participation, challenges and current initiatives to enhance female participation at various levels of education in Kenya. The arising implications were triangulated with qualitative data to give a comprehensive gender representation as well as allow generalizations and recommendations. Some of the findings generated by the study focused on the profiles of the study respondents such as age, year of study, area of study, type of schools attended in lower levels and parents‟ educational and socio-economic status. The study concludes by discussing strategies that can be adopted to enhance participation of females at various levels of education in Kenya. Some of the strategies have implications for policies while others demand social transformation in terms of change of culture and attitudes. Others, however, challenge institutional policies and practices. Specific strategies that have emanated from the findings of this study as well as reviewed literature include:the need to promote access to education; provision of safe, friendly and secure learning and teaching environment; creation and upgrading of single-sex schools in the learning of Science, Mathematics and Information Technology; teaching of life-skills; re-tooling of teachers for gender sensitive pedagogy; institutionalizing gender mainstreaming; supporting career guidance services; creating awareness about the importance of female education; improving transition rates while fostering role modelling and mentorship.
Appendix XIII
The Worlds of Gikuyu Mythology: A Mytho-Structural Analysis of a Culture’s Modes of Thought and Practice. Michael Wainaina
Definitional and methodological shortcomings in mythological analyses and their concomitant effect on the analysis of Gikuyu mythology inspired me to undertake this study. Previous studies in mythologies of African communities and Gikuyu mythology in particular have been greatly hampered by typological definitions that define tales/narratives as fundamentally different from others. These studies have tended to concentrate on the “folktale” to the exclusion of other “types‟ of tales, a situation that I contend is detrimental to the understanding of African mythology in general and Gikuyu mythology in particular. Partly due to these definitional shortcomings and also due to the constraints of atomistic theoretical approaches, that is, approaches that deal with tales individually , meaningful relations are not sought between tales and across the entire mythology, even in studies that claim to be “structural”. The notion of structure” Piaget (1970) tells us “is comprised of three key ideas: the idea of wholeness, the idea of transformation and the idea of self-regulation”. The danger in some strands of structuralism is to assume a systematic completeness where one does not exist. As Scholes (1975) notes, this sis exactly the assumption in operation when individual tales are structurally regarded as “closed” and finished objects in order to be treated systematically. Consequently, I divest of the typological definition of “myth” that sees myth as one type of story as opposed to another. I instead adopt the Okpewhorean aestheticist position, and define myth as any tale of the Gikuyu community. In addition to this, I adopt a methodology that seeks not only the structural unity of Gikuyu mythology but also recognizes the potential for signification of delineated mythological structures. I proceed from the Levi-Straussian postulate that myth is like language whose various constituent elements (phonemes) combine to make meaning. Corresponding elements in mythology are called mythemes. Taking the worlds of Gikuyu mythology as the mythology‟s mythemes, I test the hypothesis that the structural model of the transformational relationship of the words of Gikuyu mythology is related to Gikuyu society and culture and it provides a basis for analysis and interpretation of the culture‟s modes of thought and practice.
Appendix XIV
Gender in Nascent Module II Programs in Kenyan Public Universities: A Descriptive Survey.
Michael Wainaina
This study addresses the intersection of issues of gender and the nascent module II programs in public Universities in Kenya. The onset of the new millennium has seen an unprecedented growth of module II programs in Kenyan public Universities. The nascent nature of these programs is borne out by the fact that the earliest started in 1998 and the rest have grown over the subsequent years. Different terminologies are being used to describe these programs viz; parallel programs, evening programs, part time programs, self sponsored programs, school based programs, direct entry programs, full fee paying academic programs and module two programs. Within the context of this study, I have used the term module II programs to refer to all the adult/continuing/lifelong education programs in public universities in Kenya, which are being offered to mature students who are not selected through the Joint Admissions Board (J.A.B). According to Morris (1999), the differential access to and control over the resources and benefits men and women encounter through developmental programs, educational or otherwise, are inextricably linked to the gendered nature of the organization providing the . Stated in terms of the concerns of the study, we appreciate that gender affects the differential access to and control over the resources and benefits men and women will derive from the module II programs. This study was thus a diagnostic one, aiming at identifying key issues of intersection between gender and the module II programs in order to establish potentialities, opportunities, challenges and trends that should inform gender parity in the programs. The trends identified in this research show that nascent module II programs have opportunities for growth for both men and women. The opportunities are however clouded by the gender blind approach the Universities are using in mounting these programs. There is need to change this approach if men and women are to maximize the benefits of module II programs and enjoy those benefits equally.
Appendix XV
Mytho-Linguistic Construction of Gĩkũyũ Cultural Identity and Political Implications for Nationalism in Multi-Cultural Kenya.
Michael Wainaina
Language is one of the key markers of cultural difference. In Africa, ethnic groups use language to identify themselves as a „homogenous” entity and reinforce cultural constructions of “them” and “us”. Nowhere does this demarcation achieve practical expression as when this function of language operates within the context of politics. With politics in Africa generally and in Kenya particularly being deeply ethicized, language is pushed at the center of representations of otherness, real or imagined for political posturing. In this chapter, I examine the concept of language from a mythic perspective where I am interested in the operation of language within the platform of mythology and its implications to contemporary Kenyan politics. The link between language and myth is of central importance to this paper as theorized by Levi-Strauss who first pointed to the need to see the structure of myth in terms of the structure of language. Whereas linguistic units that combine to make meaning are variously referred to as phonemes, morphemes and sememes, Levi- Strauss proposes the term mythemes for the units of myth. Using Gĩkũyũ mythology, I have isolated the essential mythemes from which I have identified meaningful transformational relationships through which the Agĩkũyũ construct existential and moral modes of cultural thought and practice (See also Wainaina 2009). I further discuss how these modes are used to legitimize the Agĩkũyũ‟s definition of self and otherness in Kenyan politics through the concepts of nyũmba ya mbarĩ ya Mũmbi - the lineage of Mũmbi as a descriptor of “self” and nyamũ ya rũgũrũ - Animal from the West and rumbwa - outsider as descriptors of “otherness”. I also look ahead to see ways in which this discourse can be used to lead to inclusion rather than exclusion. The need for the survival of Kenya as a nation state requires that cultural exclusion gives way to nationalism and the requisite political repositioning and redefinition of the concepts of self and otherness. I propose that such a project of cultural repositioning to accommodate nationalist perspectives starts with cultural introspection and probing to look for those intra-cultural resources which can inform such a nationalist perspective.
Appendix XVI
'Lemme do m’thing’: Objective Possibilities in Re-visioning Youth Identity through Pop-Music
Michael Wainaina
The growth of Kenyan hip-hop within the popular music scene in Kenya has been one of the most significant cultural developments of the recent times. A particular form of hip-hop known as genge, characterized by danceable rhythm, pumping beats and raunchy lyrics has dominated the pop-music scene and become very popular with the youth. We shall use the term hip-hop and genge interchangeably. This paper explores the opportunities and liberties that this genre has availed the youth in expressing and re-visioning identities especially as seen from traditionally-defined adult-controlled structures and institutions, chief among these being the school. In searching for objective possibilities, this paper seeks to explore how the youth negotiate and reconcile the tensions and voices that characterize the content and context of the genre on the youths‟ sense of being and becoming. The influence of popular music is pervasive, the genre being a widely disseminated and commercially mediated form. The appeal of the genre to a mass of young people, and the counter concern that it is „corrupting culture‟ has heightened the tensions between the two dominant sets or perspectives or art viz „serious are‟ and „pop art‟. According to Willis 2001:2: Culture as serious art is used to mean the best of those activities separated from everyday life which are meant to express absolute values about the nature of human existence in a medium which is disciplined, self conscious and often difficult to master…. Art is away from life judged for itself, autonomous its functions and values, and ultimately based n detached logo-centric meaning (emphasis mine). This is a view that would be at variance with the rising influence of hip-hop culture, which is mass produced, transient and sensational. The growth of mass youth cultural forms of expression, specifically hip-hop, necessitates a re-visioning of this view of art and culture. This paper further surmises that pop music offers a critique on this view of culture and art, providing us with an opportunity to explore objective possibilities in locating how the youth eschew, negotiate or altogether subvert dominant perspectives of high-art as defined by adult, elite social institutions and structures. They do this in an effort to define an identity independent of the confines and expectations of these structures and institutions and their „high culture‟, „serious art‟ dictates.

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